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تقارير انج .. كلهم 101/102/201/202 الخ ..
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Cool اتفضلوا .. واذا فيه بعد بحط ..

ولكن يا شباب وبنات اللي تدوروا بحوث بقلكم طريقة سهلة وحلوة

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الاهرامات

Pyramids



Pyramids are large structures with square bases and four smooth, triangular-shaped sides that come to a point at the top. Several ancient peoples used pyramids as tombs or temples. The most famous pyramids are those built about 4,500 years ago as tombs for Egyptian kings. These Egyptian pyramids are among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Egyptian pyramids

The ruins of 35 major pyramids still stand near the Nile River in Egypt. Each was built to house the body of an Egyptian king. The Egyptians thought that a person's body had to be preserved and protected so the soul could live forever. The Egyptians mummified (embalmed and dried) their dead and hid the mummies in large tombs. From about 2700 to 1700 B.C., the bodies of Egyptian kings were buried inside or beneath a pyramid in a secret chamber that was filled with treasures of gold and precious objects. Many scholars believe that the pyramid shape had a religious meaning to the Egyptians. The sloping sides may have reminded the Egyptians of the slanting rays of the sun, by which the soul of the king could climb to the sky and join the gods.

Funeral ceremonies were performed in temples that were attached to the pyramids. Most pyramids had two temples connected by a long stone passageway. Sometimes a smaller pyramid for the body of the queen stood next to the king's pyramid. Egypt has at least 40 smaller pyramids that were used for queens or as memorial monuments for kings. The king's relatives and officials were buried in smaller rectangular tombs called mastabas, which had sloping sides and flat roofs.

The first pyramids. Imhotep, a great architect and statesman, built the first known pyramid for King Zoser in about 2650 B.C. Zoser's tomb rose in a series of giant steps, or terraces, and is called the Step Pyramid. This pyramid still stands at the site of the ancient city of Memphis, near Saqqarah.

The first smooth-sided pyramid was built about 2600 B.C. It still stands at Medum. It began as a stepped pyramid, and then the steps were filled in with casing stones to give the building smooth, sloping sides. Other pyramids built during a period of Egyptian history called the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 B.C.) can be seen at Abusir and Dahshur. During the Middle Kingdom (2052-1786 B.C.), pyramids were built at Hawara, Illahun, Lisht, and Dahshur--near what is now Cairo. The remains of these pyramids are still impressive.

The Pyramids of Giza (Al Jizah) stand on the west bank of the Nile River outside Cairo. There are 10 pyramids at Giza, including three of the largest and best preserved of all Egyptian pyramids. They were built for kings in about 2600 to 2500 B.C. The largest was built for King Khufu (called Cheops by the Greeks). The second was built for King Khafre (Chephren), and the third for King Menkaure (Mycerinus). A huge statue of a sphinx, called the Great Sphinx, was probably built for Khafre. It stands near his pyramid.

The pyramid of Khufu, called the Great Pyramid, contains more than 2 million stone blocks that average 2.3 metric tons each. It was originally 147 metres tall, but some of its upper stones are gone now and it stands about 140 metres high. Its base covers an area of about 5 hectares.

A study of the Great Pyramid shows how these gigantic structures were built. The ancient Egyptians had no machinery or iron tools. They cut big limestone blocks with copper chisels and saws. Most of the stones came from quarries nearby. But some came from across the Nile, and others came by boat from distant quarries. Gangs of men dragged the blocks to the pyramid site and pushed the first layer of stones into place. Then they built long ramps of earth and brick, and dragged the stones up the ramps to form the next layer. As they finished each layer, they raised and lengthened the ramps. Finally, they covered the pyramid with an outer coating of white casing stones. They laid these outer stones so exactly that from a distance the pyramid appeared to have been cut out of a single white stone. Most of the casing stones are gone now, but a few are still in place at the bottom of the Great Pyramid.

The burial chamber is inside the Great Pyramid. A corridor leads from an entrance on the north side to several rooms within the pyramid. One of the rooms is called the Queen's Chamber, although the queen is not buried there. The room was planned as the king's burial chamber. But Khufu changed the plan and built another burial chamber, called the King's Chamber. The Grand Gallery, a corridor 47 metres long and 8.5 metres high, leads to Khufu's chamber. The Great Pyramid is considered a marvel of ancient architecture.

No one knows how long it took to build the Great Pyramid. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus said that the work went on in four-month shifts, with 100,000 workers in each shift. Scholars now doubt that account and believe that about 100,000 men worked on the pyramids for three or four months each year. Farm labourers built the pyramids. They worked on the tombs during periods when floodwaters of the Nile covered the fields and made farming impossible.

Thieves broke into most of the pyramids, stole the gold, and sometimes destroyed the bodies. Later Egyptian kings stopped using pyramids, and built secret tombs in cliffs. But some kings of the Kushite kingdom in Nubia, south of Egypt, built pyramids long after they were no longer used in Egypt.
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ابو الهول

Sphinx




Sphinx is an imaginary creature of ancient myths. The Egyptians, Greeks, and peoples of the Near East all had stories about such creatures. According to various tales, the sphinx had the body of a lion and the head of a human, falcon, or ram. Some sphinxes also had wings and a serpent tail.

The term sphinx is a Greek word that originally referred to an imaginary evil monster. The ancient Greeks used the term to describe the huge stone statues of lions with human heads that they saw during their visits to Egypt.

Egyptian sphinxes. Most Egyptian sphinxes had the head of a man and the body, feet, and tail of a lion. Others had heads of rams or falcons. Egyptians often made statues of sphinxes to honour a king or queen. The sculptors modelled the face of such a sphinx after the honoured person. Egyptian art frequently showed kings as lions conquering their enemies, and sphinxes became symbols of royal protection. Statues of sphinxes often lined avenues leading to temples, such as those near the great temple at Karnak. Other sphinxes represented the god Horus, the sky god and sun god who was thought to be a protector of the king.

The largest, oldest, and most famous sphinx statue lies in the desert near Giza, Egypt. It is called the Great Sphinx. The monument stretches 73 metres long and stands about 20 metres high. The width of its face measures 4.17 metres. Egyptians built the Great Sphinx about 4,500 years ago. They carved its head and body directly out of a giant rock in a limestone formation and cut stone blocks to form the paws and legs. This formation had supplied much of the stone used to build several great pyramids.

The Great Sphinx wears a royal headdress and lies near the pyramid of King Khafre. Historians believe that the sphinx's face is a portrait of Khafre, who probably had the monument built.

Sand has often buried the Great Sphinx up to its neck. King Thutmose IV of Egypt cleared the sand away during the 1400's B.C., supposedly after dreaming that the god Horus asked him to do so. During modern times, workers removed the sand in 1818, 1886, 1926, and 1938.

Through the years, desert sand, wind, rain, and sun have worn away part of the stone of the Great Sphinx. A broken section of the head indicates that it may have been used as a target for gun practice at various times. In the 1970's, scientists began efforts to preserve the crumbling stone by treating it with special chemicals.

The Greek sphinx had the head of a woman, the body of a lion, a serpent tail, and wings. In the Greek myths, the most famous sphinx occurs in the story of Oedipus. The Sphinx lived on a high rock outside the city of Thebes. When anyone passed by, she asked a riddle: What has one voice and becomes four-footed, two-footed, and three-footed? The Sphinx destroyed everyone who could not answer correctly.

When Oedipus passed by on his way to Thebes, the Sphinx asked him the riddle. Oedipus replied: Man, who crawls on all fours as a baby, then walks on two legs, and finally needs a cane in old age. The Sphinx became furious because Oedipus had solved the riddle and jumped off the rock to her death.

Other sphinxes. Pictures, sculptures, and statues of sphinxes existed in parts of the ancient world besides Egypt and Greece. For example, sphinxes have been found in Assyria and Phoenicia in the Near East and in Asia Minor (now Turkey). Many of these sphinxes were made of pottery or metal.

Like the Egyptians, other ancient peoples decorated tombs and temples with carvings or pictures of sphinxes. These peoples probably intended the sphinxes to serve as guardians of sacred places.

---- end of article ----




تاج محل


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Taj Mahal



Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful and costly tombs in the world. The Indian ruler Shah Jahan ordered it built in memory of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1629. The tomb stands near the city of Agra, in northern India, on the south bank of the Jumna River. About 20,000 workers were employed in its construction, completed after some 20 years by about 1650.

According to tradition, the Taj Mahal was designed by a Turkish architect. It is made of white marble and rests on a platform of red sandstone. At each corner of the platform stands a slender minaret (prayer tower). Each tower is 40.5 metres high. The building itself is almost 57 metres square. A dome covers the centre of the building. It is over 21 metres in diameter and 36.5 metres high. Passages from the Muslim holy book, the Quran, decorate the outside along with inlaid floral patterns. A central room contains two cenotaphs (monuments). Visitors can see the monuments through a carved alabaster screen. The bodies of Shah Jahan and his wife lie in a vault below. The tomb stands in a garden.

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وشكرا Wink Wink Wink


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